Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool causing fusion. Welding is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as soldering and brazing, which do not melt the base metal. In addition to melting the base metal, a filler material is typically added to the joint to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to form a joint with properties different from those of the base material. Pressure may also be used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce a weld.

The most common methods rely on either electric current (electric arc welding), high-energy laser beams (laser beam welding), electron beam welding, or an oxyacetylene torch for producing heat. In some cases especially with thinner materials friction stirring welding can be used in place of fusion methods. Until the end of the 19th century, all welding processes were limited to relatively thin materials because there was no efficient way to provide adequate shielding of more complex parts during heating. However, where dissimilar metals are welded together using galvanic corrosion can occur and so generally mechanical fasteners are used instead if this is a concern

What is welding?

Welding is a process that joins two or more pieces of metal to form a single piece. To do this, you need to heat up the metal until it becomes molten and fuse them together in a way that makes them inseparable.

Metals tend to have very high melting points. For example, the melting point of steel is between 1371 and 1540 degrees Celsius (2500 and 2800 degrees Fahrenheit), depending on the type. For aluminum, the melting point is significantly lower, at 660.3 degrees Celsius (1221 degrees Fahrenheit), because it is ultimately a weaker metal.

Types of welding joints

When welding, there are two types of welds: fillet and groove. Fillet welds are made on the flat surfaces of two pieces of metal while groove welds are made in between two flat surfaces.

A fillet weld is formed when a molten filler metal is deposited into a groove formed by two or more pieces of material that are being joined together at their edges.

History

You may not realize it, but the history of welding is a rich one. The first welders were a group of talented men and women who defied convention to push the boundaries of what was possible with their craft.

In America, the first welders were taught by Benjamin Franklin himself. These early pioneers included Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, both of whom learned how to weld while serving under General Washington during his campaign against British troops in 1776.

In Britain, there are also many important figures who helped lay the groundwork for modern welding techniques: William Shakespeare wrote plays about welding; Sir Isaac Newton published laws governing its properties; Jane Austen penned novels describing different types of metalwork that could be done by hand or machine without melting anything down (this was before gas torches became widespread).

Weld strength calculation

In order to calculate the weld strength, you can use this very simple formula:

\text {Strength} = \text {Throat area} \times \text {Maximum tensile stress}

Example of using the welding calculator

Our welding calculator contains multiple different modes of welding, depending on your needs. There are 6:

  • Transverse weld (single)
  • Transverse weld (double)
  • Parallel weld
  • Combined
  • Single butt weld
  • Double butt weld

Depending on which type you pick, the calculation will be slightly different, but the instructions are easy to follow.

If you found this calculator useful, you can check out some of our other construction-related calculators, such as The Taper Calculator, The Cement Calculator, and The Rolling Offset Calculator.

FAQ

What is a fillet weld?

A fillet weld is used to weld two pieces together perpendicularly.

What is arc welding?

Arc welding uses electric energy to produce heat.

What affects weld strength?

There are 5 important factors: size and type of weld, edge preparation, metal thickness, reinforcement members, and distortion.