The pH scale is used to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution. It ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral and values above 7 indicating alkaline solutions, and values below 7 indicating acidic solutions. Buffers are chemical compounds that maintain a consistent pH in a solution despite the addition of acids or bases to said solution.


pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, and it can range from 0 to 14. A pH value of 7 indicates neutrality; values greater than 7 indicate increasing alkalinity (basicity), and values below 7 indicate increasing acidity.

The pH scale is usually written as a number between 0 and 14, but it can also be represented by letters. A high concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions results in an acidic solution; this is symbolized by an ‘a’. In contrast, a low concentration of H+ ions results in an alkaline solution; this is symbolized by a ‘b’. Following this, since the pH scale is a negative logarithm of the concentration of H+ ions, the lower the number is, the higher the concentration of H+ ions, and the more acidic the solution is.

Buffer solutions

A buffer solution is a solution with a pH that is stable over a wide range of pH values, even though the acid or base concentration may change. There are various types of buffers, including phosphate-buffered solutions and Tris borate, which have even been observed to work well at extreme pH levels. Biological systems such as organisms, organs, or cells use buffer systems to maintain homeostasis–the regulation of internal conditions in order to stay healthy.

These are special kinds of chemical compounds that can resist changes in their pH level due to adding acids or bases. The difference between acidic and basic solutions is that the former has a lower pH and the latter has a higher one. But buffer solutions aren’t much different from each other; they just have a slightly different way of resisting changes in pH level.

Neutral solutions

A neutral solution has equal molar concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), resulting in a pH value of 7. This means that neutral solutions are neither acidic nor basic, nor equally basic and acidic.


When you see salt, you’re probably thinking about the taste. You may not be thinking about its pH, but it is important to know that salt is a neutral compound. The term “neutral compound” refers to compounds that have a pH of 7 on the pH scale. Neutral compounds are made up of an acid and base (or alkali), and they have an overall electrical charge of zero. Salts are examples of neutral compounds; table salt, baking soda, and ashes from burnt wood are all examples of salts with which we interact every day.


Acids are substances that dissociate in water to form hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. The hydrogen ions are the active ingredient of acid, while the hydroxide ions are its base.

A solution containing a weak acid can be neutralized by mixing it with a solution containing its conjugate base (a substance with which an acid forms a salt). For example, adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) to sodium hydroxide produces salt and water:

HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H_2O


You may have heard the term “base” before, but what exactly is a base? A base is any substance that reacts with an acid to produce water and salt. When this occurs, the pH of the solution increases.

Why does adding an alkali (or hydroxide) to an acid make a solution more basic? Acids are proton donors, meaning they are willing to donate protons in order to form bonds with other molecules.


What is NaCl?

Sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as salt, is an essential compound our body uses to: absorb and transport nutrients. maintain blood pressure. We also know it as cooking salt.

What does pH stand for?

The full form of pH is the Potential of Hydrogen (concentration of hydrogen).

What is the pH of urine?

The normal values range from pH 4.6 to 8.0. This means it is mildly acidic to mildly basic.